Black Hand (serbia)

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Black Hand (serbia)



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Swart still survives as the word swarthy , while blaek became the modern English black. Black was one of the first colors used in art. The Lascaux Cave in France contains drawings of bulls and other animals drawn by paleolithic artists between 18, and 17, years ago. They began by using charcoal, and later achieved darker pigments by burning bones or grinding a powder of manganese oxide. For the ancient Egyptians, black had positive associations; being the color of fertility and the rich black soil flooded by the Nile.

It was the color of Anubis , the god of the underworld, who took the form of a black jackal , and offered protection against evil to the dead. To ancient Greeks, black represented the underworld, separated from the living by the river Acheron , whose water ran black. Those who had committed the worst sins were sent to Tartarus , the deepest and darkest level. In the center was the palace of Hades , the king of the underworld, where he was seated upon a black ebony throne. Black was one of the most important colors used by ancient Greek artists. In the 6th century BC, they began making black-figure pottery and later red figure pottery , using a highly original technique.

In black-figure pottery, the artist would paint figures with a glossy clay slip on a red clay pot. When the pot was fired, the figures painted with the slip would turn black, against a red background. Later they reversed the process, painting the spaces between the figures with slip. This created magnificent red figures against a glossy black background. In the social hierarchy of ancient Rome , purple was the color reserved for the Emperor; red was the color worn by soldiers red cloaks for the officers, red tunics for the soldiers ; white the color worn by the priests, and black was worn by craftsmen and artisans.

The black they wore was not deep and rich; the vegetable dyes used to make black were not solid or lasting, so the blacks often turned out faded gray or brown. In Latin , the word for black, ater and to darken, atere , were associated with cruelty, brutality and evil. They were the root of the English words "atrocious" and "atrocity". In the 2nd century BC Roman magistrates began to wear a dark toga, called a toga pulla , to funeral ceremonies.

Later, under the Empire, the family of the deceased also wore dark colors for a long period; then, after a banquet to mark the end of mourning, exchanged the black for a white toga. In Roman poetry, death was called the hora nigra , the black hour. They also feared Hel , the goddess of the kingdom of the dead, whose skin was black on one side and red on the other. They also held sacred the raven. They believed that Odin , the king of the Nordic pantheon, had two black ravens, Huginn and Muninn, who served as his agents, traveling the world for him, watching and listening.

Neolithic paintings of bulls in the Lascaux Cave , more than 17, years old. Statue of Anubis , guardian of the underworld , from the tomb of Tutankhamun. Greek black-figure pottery. Ajax and Achilles playing a game, about — BC. Vatican Museums. Red-figure pottery with black background. Portrait of Thetis , about — BC. The Louvre. In the early Middle Ages, black was commonly associated with darkness and evil. In Medieval paintings, the devil was usually depicted as having human form, but with wings and black skin or hair. In fashion, black did not have the prestige of red, the color of the nobility. It was worn by Benedictine monks as a sign of humility and penitence. In the 12th century a famous theological dispute broke out between the Cistercian monks, who wore white, and the Benedictines, who wore black.

A Benedictine abbot, Pierre the Venerable, accused the Cistercians of excessive pride in wearing white instead of black. Saint Bernard of Clairvaux , the founder of the Cistercians responded that black was the color of the devil, hell, "of death and sin," while white represented "purity, innocence and all the virtues". Black symbolized both power and secrecy in the medieval world.

The emblem of the Holy Roman Empire of Germany was a black eagle. The black knight in the poetry of the Middle Ages was an enigmatic figure, hiding his identity, usually wrapped in secrecy. Black ink , invented in China, was traditionally used in the Middle Ages for writing, for the simple reason that black was the darkest color and therefore provided the greatest contrast with white paper or parchment, making it the easiest color to read. It became even more important in the 15th century, with the invention of printing.

A new kind of ink, printer's ink, was created out of soot , turpentine and walnut oil. The new ink made it possible to spread ideas to a mass audience through printed books, and to popularize art through black and white engravings and prints. Because of its contrast and clarity, black ink on white paper continued to be the standard for printing books, newspapers and documents; and for the same reason black text on a white background is the most common format used on computer screens.

The Italian painter Duccio di Buoninsegna showed Christ expelling the Devil , shown covered with bristly black hair — The 15th-century painting of the Last Judgement by Fra Angelico — depicted hell with a vivid black devil devouring sinners. Portrait of a monk of the Benedictine Order Gutenberg Bible — Black ink was used for printing books, because it provided the greatest contrast with the white paper and was the clearest and easiest color to read. In the early Middle Ages, princes, nobles and the wealthy usually wore bright colors, particularly scarlet cloaks from Italy. Black was rarely part of the wardrobe of a noble family.

The one exception was the fur of the sable. This glossy black fur, from an animal of the marten family, was the finest and most expensive fur in Europe. It was imported from Russia and Poland and used to trim the robes and gowns of royalty. In the 14th century, the status of black began to change. First, high-quality black dyes began to arrive on the market, allowing garments of a deep, rich black. Magistrates and government officials began to wear black robes, as a sign of the importance and seriousness of their positions.

A third reason was the passage of sumptuary laws in some parts of Europe which prohibited the wearing of costly clothes and certain colors by anyone except members of the nobility. The famous bright scarlet cloaks from Venice and the peacock blue fabrics from Florence were restricted to the nobility. The wealthy bankers and merchants of northern Italy responded by changing to black robes and gowns, made with the most expensive fabrics. The change to the more austere but elegant black was quickly picked up by the kings and nobility. It moved to England at the end of the reign of King Richard II — , where all the court began to wear black.

In —20, black became the color of the powerful Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good. European rulers saw it as the color of power, dignity, humility and temperance. By the end of the 16th century, it was the color worn by almost all the monarchs of Europe and their courts. Philip the Good in about , by Rogier van der Weyden. Portrait of a Young Woman by Petrus Christus about Portrait of Philip II of Spain — While black was the color worn by the Catholic rulers of Europe, it was also the emblematic color of the Protestant Reformation in Europe and the Puritans in England and America. John Calvin , Philip Melanchthon and other Protestant theologians denounced the richly colored and decorated interiors of Roman Catholic churches.

They saw the color red, worn by the Pope and his Cardinals, as the color of luxury, sin, and human folly. In Protestant doctrine, clothing was required to be sober, simple and discreet. Bright colors were banished and replaced by blacks, browns and grays; women and children were recommended to wear white. In the Protestant Netherlands, Rembrandt used this sober new palette of blacks and browns to create portraits whose faces emerged from the shadows expressing the deepest human emotions.

The Catholic painters of the Counter-Reformation, like Rubens , went in the opposite direction; they filled their paintings with bright and rich colors. The new Baroque churches of the Counter-Reformation were usually shining white inside and filled with statues, frescoes, marble, gold and colorful paintings, to appeal to the public. But European Catholics of all classes, like Protestants, eventually adopted a sober wardrobe that was mostly black, brown and gray. Swiss theologian John Calvin denounced the bright colors worn by Roman Catholic priests, and colorful decoration of churches. Increase Mather , an American Puritan clergyman Black painted suit of German armor crafted circa As with many outfits, black in the piece is used to contrast against lighter colors.

In the second part of the 17th century, Europe and America experienced an epidemic of fear of witchcraft. People widely believed that the devil appeared at midnight in a ceremony called a Black Mass or black sabbath, usually in the form of a black animal, often a goat, a dog, a wolf, a bear, a deer or a rooster, accompanied by their familiar spirits , black cats, serpents and other black creatures.

This was the origin of the widespread superstition about black cats and other black animals. In medieval Flanders , in a ceremony called Kattenstoet, black cats were thrown from the belfry of the Cloth Hall of Ypres to ward off witchcraft. Witch trials were common in both Europe and America during this period. During the notorious Salem witch trials in New England in —93, one of those on trial was accused of being able turn into a "black thing with a blue cap," and others of having familiars in the form of a black dog, a black cat and a black bird.

An English manual on witch-hunting , showing a witch with her familiar spirits. Black cats have been accused for centuries of being the familiar spirits of witches or of bringing bad luck. In the 18th century, during the European Age of Enlightenment , black receded as a fashion color. Paris became the fashion capital, and pastels, blues, greens, yellow and white became the colors of the nobility and upper classes. But after the French Revolution , black again became the dominant color. Black was the color of the industrial revolution, largely fueled by coal, and later by oil.

Thanks to coal smoke , the buildings of the large cities of Europe and America gradually turned black. A different kind of black was an important part of the romantic movement in literature. Black was the color of melancholy , the dominant theme of romanticism. The novels of the period were filled with castles, ruins, dungeons, storms, and meetings at midnight. The leading poets of the movement were usually portrayed dressed in black, usually with a white shirt and open collar, and a scarf carelessly over their shoulder, Percy Bysshe Shelley and Lord Byron helped create the enduring stereotype of the romantic poet.

The invention of inexpensive synthetic black dyes and the industrialization of the textile industry meant that high-quality black clothes were available for the first time to the general population. In the 19th century black gradually became the most popular color of business dress of the upper and middle classes in England, the Continent, and America. Black dominated literature and fashion in the 19th century, and played a large role in painting. James McNeil Whistler made the color the subject of is most famous painting, Arrangement in grey and black number one , better known as Whistler's Mother. Some 19th-century French painters had a low opinion of black: "Reject black," Paul Gauguin said, "and that mix of black and white they call gray.

Nothing is black, nothing is gray. Manet's portrait of painter Berthe Morisot was a study in black which perfectly captured her spirit of independence. The black gave the painting power and immediacy; he even changed her eyes, which were green, to black to strengthen the effect. Pierre-Auguste Renoir used luminous blacks, especially in his portraits. When someone told him that black was not a color, Renoir replied: "What makes you think that? Black is the queen of colors. I always detested Prussian blue. I tried to replace black with a mixture of red and blue, I tried using cobalt blue or ultramarine, but I always came back to ivory black. Vincent van Gogh used black lines to outline many of the objects in his paintings, such as the bed in the famous painting of his bedroom.

His painting of black crows over a cornfield, painted shortly before he died, was particularly agitated and haunting. In the late 19th century, black also became the color of anarchism. See the section political movements. The Theater Box by Pierre-Auguste Renoir , captured the luminosity of black fabric in the light. Wheat Field with Crows , one of the last paintings of Vincent van Gogh , captures his agitated state of mind. In the 20th century, black was the color of Italian and German fascism. In art, black regained some of the territory that it had lost during the 19th century. The Russian painter Kasimir Malevich , a member of the Suprematist movement, created the Black Square in , is widely considered the first purely abstract painting.

It is not a demonstration of ability, but the materialization of an idea. Black was also appreciated by Henri Matisse. Since the impressionists it seems to have made continuous progress, taking a more and more important part in color orchestration, comparable to that of the double bass as a solo instrument. In the s, black came to be a symbol of individuality and intellectual and social rebellion, the color of those who didn't accept established norms and values.

By the end of the 20th century, black was the emblematic color of the punk subculture punk fashion , and the goth subculture. Goth fashion, which emerged in England in the s, was inspired by Victorian era mourning dress. In men's fashion, black gradually ceded its dominance to navy blue, particularly in business suits. Black evening dress and formal dress in general were worn less and less. In , John F. Kennedy was the last American President to be inaugurated wearing formal dress; President Lyndon Johnson and all his successors were inaugurated wearing business suits.

Women's fashion was revolutionized and simplified in by the French designer Coco Chanel , who published a drawing of a simple black dress in Vogue magazine. She famously said, "A woman needs just three things; a black dress, a black sweater, and, on her arm, a man she loves. The Italian designer Gianni Versace said, "Black is the quintessence of simplicity and elegance," and French designer Yves Saint Laurent said, "black is the liaison which connects art and fashion.

The American civil rights movement in the s was a struggle for the political equality of African Americans. It developed into the Black Power movement in the late s and s, and popularized the slogan " Black is Beautiful ". The goth fashion model Lady Amaranth. Goth fashion was inspired by British Victorian mourning costumes. In the visible spectrum , black is the absorption of all colors. Black can be defined as the visual impression experienced when no visible light reaches the eye. Pigments or dyes that absorb light rather than reflect it back to the eye "look black". A black pigment can, however, result from a combination of several pigments that collectively absorb all colors.

If appropriate proportions of three primary pigments are mixed, the result reflects so little light as to be called "black". This provides two superficially opposite but actually complementary descriptions of black. Black is the absorption of all colors of light, or an exhaustive combination of multiple colors of pigment. In physics, a black body is a perfect absorber of light, but, by a thermodynamic rule, it is also the best emitter. Thus, the best radiative cooling, out of sunlight, is by using black paint, though it is important that it be black a nearly perfect absorber in the infrared as well.

In elementary science, far ultraviolet light is called " black light " because, while itself unseen, it causes many minerals and other substances to fluoresce. Absorption of light is contrasted by transmission , reflection and diffusion , where the light is only redirected, causing objects to appear transparent, reflective or white respectively. A material is said to be black if most incoming light is absorbed equally in the material. Light electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum interacts with the atoms and molecules , which causes the energy of the light to be converted into other forms of energy, usually heat.

This means that black surfaces can act as thermal collectors, absorbing light and generating heat see Solar thermal collector. As of September , the darkest material is made from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. The material was grown by MIT engineers and was reported to have a The earliest pigments used by Neolithic man were charcoal , red ocher and yellow ocher.

The black lines of cave art were drawn with the tips of burnt torches made of a wood with resin. The charcoal would be ground and then mixed with animal fat to make the pigment. The 15th-century painter Cennino Cennini described how this pigment was made during the Renaissance in his famous handbook for artists: " And these tendrils need to be burned. And when they have been burned, throw some water onto them and put them out and then mull them in the same way as the other black.

And this is a lean and black pigment and is one of the perfect pigments that we use. Cennini also noted that "There is another black which is made from burnt almond shells or peaches and this is a perfect, fine black. The powdered charcoal was then mixed with gum arabic or the yellow of an egg to make a paint. Different civilizations burned different plants to produce their charcoal pigments. The Inuit of Alaska used wood charcoal mixed with the blood of seals to paint masks and wooden objects. The Polynesians burned coconuts to produce their pigment. Good-quality black dyes were not known until the middle of the 14th century.

The most common early dyes were made from bark, roots or fruits of different trees; usually walnuts, chestnuts, or certain oak trees. The blacks produced were often more gray, brown or bluish. The cloth had to be dyed several times to darken the color. One solution used by dyers was add to the dye some iron filings, rich in iron oxide, which gave a deeper black. Another was to first dye the fabric dark blue, and then to dye it black. A much richer and deeper black dye was eventually found made from the oak apple or "gall-nut". The gall-nut is a small round tumor which grows on oak and other varieties of trees.

They range in size from 2—5 cm, and are caused by chemicals injected by the larva of certain kinds of gall wasp in the family Cynipidae. The gall-nuts which made the best dye came from Poland, eastern Europe, the near east and North Africa. Beginning in about the 14th century, dye from gall-nuts was used for clothes of the kings and princes of Europe. Another important source of natural black dyes from the 17th century onwards was the logwood tree , or Haematoxylum campechianum , which also produced reddish and bluish dyes. It is a species of flowering tree in the legume family, Fabaceae , that is native to southern Mexico and northern Central America.

Since the midth century, synthetic black dyes have largely replaced natural dyes. One of the important synthetic blacks is Nigrosin , a mixture of synthetic black dyes CI , Solvent black 5 made by heating a mixture of nitrobenzene , aniline and aniline hydrochloride in the presence of a copper or iron catalyst. Its main industrial uses are as a colorant for lacquers and varnishes and in marker-pen inks. The first known inks were made by the Chinese, and date back to the 23rd century B. They used natural plant dyes and minerals such as graphite ground with water and applied with an ink brush. Early Chinese inks similar to the modern inkstick have been found dating to about BC at the end of the Warring States period.

They were produced from soot , usually produced by burning pine wood, mixed with animal glue. To make ink from an inkstick, the stick is continuously ground against an inkstone with a small quantity of water to produce a dark liquid which is then applied with an ink brush. Artists and calligraphists could vary the thickness of the resulting ink by reducing or increasing the intensity and time of ink grinding. These inks produced the delicate shading and subtle or dramatic effects of Chinese brush painting. India ink or "Indian ink" in British English is a black ink once widely used for writing and printing and now more commonly used for drawing, especially when inking comic books and comic strips. The technique of making it probably came from China.

India ink has been in use in India since at least the 4th century BC, where it was called masi. In India, the black color of the ink came from bone char , tar, pitch and other substances. The ancient Romans had a black writing ink they called atramentum librarium. This was the same root as the English word atrocious. It was usually made, like India ink, from soot, although one variety, called atramentum elephantinum , was made by burning the ivory of elephants. Gall-nuts were also used for making fine black writing ink.

Iron gall ink also known as iron gall nut ink or oak gall ink was a purple-black or brown-black ink made from iron salts and tannic acids from gall nut. It was the standard writing and drawing ink in Europe, from about the 12th century to the 19th century, and remained in use well into the 20th century. Sticks of vine charcoal and compressed charcoal. Charcoal, along with red and yellow ochre, was one of the first pigments used by Paleolithic man. A Chinese inkstick , in the form of lotus flowers and blossoms. Inksticks are used in Chinese calligraphy and brush painting.

Ivory black or bone char , a natural black pigment made by burning animal bones. The oak apple or gall-nut, a tumor growing on oak trees, was the main source of black dye and black writing ink from the 14th century until the 19th century. The industrial production of lamp black , made by producing, collecting and refining soot, in An illustration of Olbers' paradox see below. The fact that outer space is black is sometimes called Olbers' paradox. In theory, because the universe is full of stars, and is believed to be infinitely large, it would be expected that the light of an infinite number of stars would be enough to brilliantly light the whole universe all the time. However, the background color of outer space is black.

This contradiction was first noted in by German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Matthias Olbers , who posed the question of why the night sky was black. The current accepted answer is that, although the universe may be infinitely large, it is not infinitely old. It is thought to be about Light from stars farther away has not reached Earth, and cannot contribute to making the sky bright. Furthermore, as the universe is expanding, many stars are moving away from Earth. As they move, the wavelength of their light becomes longer, through the Doppler effect , and shifts toward red, or even becomes invisible.

As a result of these two phenomena, there is not enough starlight to make space anything but black. The daytime sky on Earth is blue because light from the Sun strikes molecules in Earth's atmosphere scattering light in all directions. Blue light is scattered more than other colors, and reaches the eye in greater quantities, making the daytime sky appear blue. This is known as Rayleigh scattering. The nighttime sky on Earth is black because the part of Earth experiencing night is facing away from the Sun, the light of the Sun is blocked by Earth itself, and there is no other bright nighttime source of light in the vicinity.

Thus, there is not enough light to undergo Rayleigh scattering and make the sky blue. On the Moon, on the other hand, because there is virtually no atmosphere to scatter the light, the sky is black both day and night. This also holds true for other locations without an atmosphere, such as Mercury. The American crow is one of the most intelligent of all animals. The black mamba of Africa is one of the most venomous snakes, as well as the fastest-moving snake in the world. The black widow spider, or latrodectus , The females frequently eat their male partners after mating. The female's venom is at least three times more potent than that of the males, making a male's self-defense bite ineffective.

A black panther is actually a melanistic leopard or jaguar , the result of an excess of melanin in their skin caused by a recessive gene. In China, the color black is associated with water, one of the five fundamental elements believed to compose all things; and with winter, cold, and the direction north, usually symbolized by a black tortoise. It is also associated with disorder, including the positive disorder which leads to change and new life. When the first Emperor of China Qin Shi Huang seized power from the Zhou Dynasty , he changed the Imperial color from red to black, saying that black extinguished red.

Only when the Han Dynasty appeared in BC was red restored as the imperial color. In Japan, black is associated with mystery, the night, the unknown, the supernatural, the invisible and death. Combined with white, it can symbolize intuition. It was worn at court by those who wanted to set themselves apart from the established powers or who had renounced material possessions. The black belt in martial arts symbolizes experience, while a white belt is worn by novices. In Indonesia black is associated with depth, the subterranean world, demons, disaster, and the left hand. When black is combined with white, however, it symbolizes harmony and equilibrium. Anarchism is a political philosophy, most popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which holds that governments and capitalism are harmful and undesirable.

The symbols of anarchism was usually either a black flag or a black letter A. More recently it is usually represented with a bisected red and black flag, to emphasise the movement's socialist roots in the First International. There were also small but influential movements in the United States and Russia. In the latter, the movement initially allied itself with the Bolsheviks. The Black Army was a collection of anarchist military units which fought in the Russian Civil War , sometimes on the side of the Bolshevik Red Army , and sometimes for the opposing White Army. It was officially known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine , and it was under the command of the anarchist Nestor Makhno.

Inspired by the black uniforms of the Arditi , Italy's elite storm troops of World War I, the Fascist Blackshirts were organized by Benito Mussolini as the military tool of his political movement. The emblem of the Italian fascists was a black flag with fasces , an axe in a bundle of sticks, an ancient Roman symbol of authority. Mussolini came to power in through his March on Rome with the blackshirts. North Macedonia and Kosovo are to fulfill a joint ski project connecting the ski resorts Brezovica and Popova Shapka in Sar Mountains, announced the website lokalnol.

In his words, this is a confirmation of the US presence in Greece and of the strategic partnership between the two countries. Serbia knows that its accession to the EU goes hand in hand with the solution to the Kosovo issue, but a compromise decision is needed, said Serbia's President Aleksandar Vucic during the visit of the German Chancellor Angela Merkel to Belgrade. There is still a long way to go Before Serbia and the whole region can finally become members of the European Union, as is our common goal", Merkel said at a press conference. Clergymen in Cyprus who preach against the coronavirus vaccination in their sermons will not receive a salary or may be even removed, read the new regulations of Cyprus's Orthodox Church.

Meanwhile, this country's Ministry of Health warned about Covid outbreaks in churches and monasteries. Certain members of the clergy continue to stand firmly against the coronavirus vaccination and claim vaccines are against the teaching of the saints, warned Archbishop Chrysostomos. Those clergymen will have the chance to apologize both to the Holy Synod and the public. If they show remorse, the church will forgive but if not they will not be paid at the end of the month, warned the incumbent Archbishop of CyprusChrysostomos II, reported the correspondent of the Bulgarian National Radio in Cyprus Branislava Bobanac.

In August, inflation in Turkey soared to Meanwhile, the Turkish government ordered the mosques to preach on Friday, warning sellers not to increase prices, reported Bloomberg agency. ISSN : Mussolini's granddaughter wins Rome municipal seat. Nationwide grief for father of Pakistan's nuclear program, A Q Khan. First malaria vaccine approved for African children.

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