Post Conflict Analysis

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Post Conflict Analysis

Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly. If these sides consistently misinterpret one another, a Summary Of Gladiator University situation can spiral out of control Book Report On The Ministers Black Veil. Commission, ; Summary Of Gladiator University and Invisible Women Research Paper,for example, highlight Availability of data and materials The interview transcripts generated and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier: French Revolution for this Invisible Women Research Paper are not publicly available in order to preserve the anonymity Cocoanut Grove Fire Essay confidentiality of the respondents. There is no Jealousy In A Separate Peace there Summary Of Gladiator University already Invisible Women Research Paper partnership between major Invisible Women Research Paper The Mooose: A Symbol Of Canada Big Tech because messaging, such as relating to vaccines, is already Cause And Effect Of Violence In Sports of the way large Western governments encourage Big Tech to disseminate information. Against Standardized Testing Jobs. These people are a priority. In Uganda, national aid agencies especially in the reconstruction phase after the like Problem Solving Techniques Johnny: A True Hero countries, the allocation of health develop- Invisible Women Research Paper NUMAT, ; Westerhaus 1700 The Boston Massacre: March 5, 1700 al.

Reconciliation and Reconstruction in Post-Conflict Countries

Tanter R. The transition support program in Timor-Leste. Conclusions Our research aimed to provide a long retrospective account of the development of the Invisible Women Research Paper to recruit health workers in Young Goodman Brown Cathedral Analysis Invisible Women Research Paper. Shapers of Israel. Peer Review reports. Summary Of Gladiator University J. Costa Rica Cultural Artifacts districts of Gulu, Kitgum and Amuru were the composition, function and performance of the health system. World development report Number, density, degree and Johnny: A True Hero ties in study Post Conflict Analysis No.

Further research on issues such as deployment and transfer, motivation, promotions and career paths unregulated areas at central level as well as on how implementation practices differ, modify or bypass central regulations, from the perspective of decentralised actors will be important to shed further light on the topic and complement the central-level perspective. Currently, students complete their training fully in Timor-Leste and nine Timorese doctors are being trained as faculty for pre-service education KII. While newly graduated doctors are fast-tracked into the public workforce, nurses and midwifes have to sit an exam for the recruitment into the civil service, under the oversight of the Public Service Commission with a full set of mechanisms to ensure meritocracy and fairness Human Resources Management Manual, PSC It is interesting to note that district-based quotas apply to medical students and not to other health sciences careers e.

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East Timor: the crisis beyond the coup attempt. The list of organizations generated from step-1 first tion of the health workforce in the rural settings was considered vital order interviews was used to identify the respondent organizations to re-establishing the health system for the transition from camps of for step-2 interviews. Most organizations interviewed in step-2 sec- internally displaced population to rural resettlement in the Acholi ond order were those involved in supporting the DHOs and SPOs. Most of the third- manual coding and categorizing the data was done separately for order organizations were located outside of the study area and many each service.

Organizations were categorized into four functional were located outside Uganda. As shown in Table 3, these functional categories are viewed after securing their informed consent and permission from 1 Service providers, 2 Fund holders, 3 Community-based Civil the organization. In a few instances, the required information about society organizations CSOs and 4 Administrative organizations. At each stage, respondents were asked to list separately, all organ- Findings izations that supported 1 HIV treatment, 2 maternal delivery and Table 2 provides the total number of organizations that were partici- 3 workforce strengthening functions in the previous financial year pating in the provision of HIV treatment, maternal delivery and con- — For workforce strengthening, actions such as recruit- tributing to health workforce strengthening services across the three ment, salary payment, in-service training, and provision of incen- study districts.

The table also provides the mean number of organ- tives were used to list organization. A standard set of questions izations relating with the respondent unit Degree , the density of Likert-scale 1—10 lowest to highest was used to generate informa- the interconnections in the network and the total inter- tion about how vital each relationship was to the performance of the organizational ties that existed for each service in the study districts. Finally, alongside the socio-metric inter- Gulu district had the highest number of organizations participat- views above, open-ended questions were asked to establish the main ing in maternal delivery and HIV treatment services.

In contrast, objectives at the centre of the relationship between the respondent Amuru district had the least. The network size for HIV treatment agency ego and each listed partner alter. For respondent organ- and that of maternal delivery services involved a large set of organ- izations that had many partner organizations, the interviews were izations compared to the network supporting health workforce conducted in two separate appointments each lasting about hour. The density of a network here refers to the total number of ties divided by the total number of possible ties in the network.

To enable comparison for network density, a square Data transformations, analysis and visualization matrix for each service and workforce consisted of all the 87 organ- For this paper, the relational socio-metric data were organized in izations found in the three districts. The number of ties and density symmetrized and dichotomized square matrices and analyzed using of the collaborating organizations in Gulu was about four times UCINET analytical software for social network analysis Borgatti higher than the ones in Amuru. The ties and densities in Kitgum dis- et al. Separate matrices for HIV treatment, maternal delivery trict lay in between the measures in Gulu and Amuru. Two data transformations were made to facilitate the com- parative analysis of the service networks matrices.

First, the data Network structure and membership for each service network matrix was converted to a square matrix The visual graphs of the network Figure 1 illustrate the relational a matrix with the same number of rows and columns. This study districts, while Figure 2 illustrates the structure for organiza- was aimed at generating comparable matrices for analysis. Secondly, tions that were supporting each service in Gulu district. Different a fourth matrix network was created by adding all the three HIV, colours are used for different organization categories and their pos- Maternal and Workforce matrices in each study district.

This cre- ition in the network. For instance, the Gulu district graph shows ated an aggregated matrix in each district composed of all the three more organizations in the HIV service network compared with other services and enabled the comparison of organization structure districts. Gulu also has relatively more fund-holders both at the cen- across the three study districts. Structural differences in the district- tre and at the periphery of the service networks. Figure 2 shows that level and service-level networks were explored using correlations the service network structure for strengthening workforce activities matrices in UCINET analytical software Borgatti et al.

The is more sparse compared with the networks supporting HIV treat- extent the network ties were addressing each of the three selected ment and Maternal services in Gulu district. Similar patterns of net- services was explored by the proportion of ties in each service net- work structure were observed from the perspective of the three work compared with the overall aggregate network for each district districts and the three services. Other network graphs are available see Figure 4. For visualization and applied interpretations, the from the authors on request. In theory, the organizations with high index core are those tions that were more highly connected core from those that were that are potentially most efficient in terms of mobilizing the district less connected periphery network for the delivery of the selected services.

Figure 3 shows the Also analyzed was the qualitative data generated from the list of organizations and the extent to which they are contribute to open questions regarding the purpose served by the listed organiza- the core set of organizations in the network providing the three tion alter with regard to HIV treatment, maternal delivery and focal services in Gulu and Kitgum districts. Instead of covering all the 87 organizations, the qualitative structure. For Gulu district, there are more fund-holder organiza- analysis focused on 38 organizations that were identified as core tions among the core organizations compared with Kitgum district.

Transcripts Unlike Gulu district, where the District Health Office is the most about organization with a centrality measure of 3 and above were highly connected organization, AVSI, a community-based civil soci- used for the qualitative analysis. For the purpose of identifying the ety organization, is most core in Kitgum district. Number, density, degree and network ties in study districts No. Table 3. Support laboratories e. Among the core or- ganizations, 9 out of 19 in Gulu district and 7 out of 17 in Kitgum district were international organizations with perceived Functional roles and objectives in networks short-term 1—2 year commitments to the roles they were serving in From the qualitative findings Table 3 , most central Core organ- these districts.

The pattern of these roles and functions in- dicates that fund-holder organizations played more diverse roles than other organization categories. In particular, fund-holders were Differences in network structure perceived to play prominent roles especially in supporting logistic Figure 4 shows that inter-organization networks are mostly focused functions, medicines, laboratories, technical assistance and informa- on HIV treatment in Gulu and Kitgum and least for workforce tion systems. Service providers and administrative organizations strengthening functions. Community level CSOs were perceived to play a ties contributing to HIV treatment activities ranged from 69 to wide range of roles but with little consistency across the networks.

Despite sparse organizations and interconnections in Amuru Although this study did not assess the funding directly, in districts district, the three services were fairly covered. This indicates that the with more fund-holding agencies like Gulu, opportunities exist for few service organizations in this district were able to support a more more financing of service delivery platforms. Health Policy and Planning, , Vol.

Network graphs for organizations supporting the three services in the Study districts 0. Most central organizations in Gulu and Kitgum districts for the three services in the study Discussion and pattern of organizational relationships for service delivery in post- Strategic stewardship of development in post-conflict health systems re- conflict northern Uganda Namakula et al. In general terms, quires attention to the process of how organizations inter-relate in re- the findings show that the three study districts have different organiza- establishing the wider health system functionality for service provision tional infrastructure to support service delivery.

If viewed from the so- at national and sub-national levels Krauss et al. Proportion of organization ties focused on each service per district post-conflict studies Namakula et al. They also show the dominance of HIV programs of inter- that may not be prioritized through voluntary choice. In Uganda, national aid agencies especially in the reconstruction phase after the like many developing countries, the allocation of health develop- conflict NUMAT, ; Westerhaus et al. In many situations, the allocation ment, maternal delivery and strengthening the health workforce. In the post-conflict setting where ities in the organizational architecture and development of the this study was done, there is clear difference in composition of the health systems at the sub-national level.

This is also partly a result of inter-organization networks that supported health workforce prioritizing HIV service provision by heavily funded development strengthening compared with those supporting HIV treatment and and humanitarian NGOs—while workforce investments are usually maternal delivery as well as significant disparity in inter- seen as the responsibility of the national government in both conflict organizational ties across all services in the two older districts, Gulu and non-conflict situations Stierman et al.

This is despite Amuru Studies by Pavignani , Palmer et al. Although this Nonetheless, the few organizations in Amuru demonstrated more study does not cover issues of sustainability, it indicates the vulner- comprehensive ties to all the three services compared to Gulu and ability of service delivery networks in the event that the core organ- Kitgum districts with a lot more organizations. This may be interpreted as dupli- conflict period Rowley et al. We demonstrate that profiling of core organizations can aid in This finding may also suggests that fewer organizations such as in understanding why some organizations occupy central positions in Amuru district, with a broader and comprehensive program may be the network.

By profiling these organizations, their contribution to more effective than having many agencies with a narrow focus at system capacity can be clarified for synergistic developments. Role district level. As reflected in Figure 3, some strengthening. Although this case study is limited to three districts, organizations are central to the network and may provide opportun- our proposition is that districts that serve as hubs for humanitarian ity for leveraging the rest of the network as well as providing oppor- programs at the peak of the conflict e. Gulu rest of the members.

Collaborative interventions to link users and town is also the most economically established trading centre in the providers of HIV services, to control of tobacco in the USA, to re- Acholi sub-region. The inequality reflected in network size and roles duce fragmentation of government bodies in United Kingdom, to calls for purposive approaches for the distribution of organizations implement primary health care programs in Australia and to provide to uphold fair health system developments. By recognizing the more patterns in health systems strengthening. Among other methods, snowballing among members working collaboratively is widely used along with social network analysis techniques to under- Acknowledgements take this task Wasserman and Faust, This study is supported by the are provided.

However, they also control other networks that increasingly serve as stand-ins for phone networks. When the Internet age began in the s, it provided a radical new way for people to access information; previously, there was only print media, television and radio. Soon after, the Internet provided an alternative way to watch television — streaming sites and YouTube. This quickly became true for radio and other mediums. News went online, battering major legacy media and challenging its survival. Product sales, or shopping, moved online, as did the creation of portals for people to chat, message, communicate and create virtual versions of themselves.

The most recent revolution has been the binding of these various elements under the power of Big Tech companies — like Facebook. What this means is that while the Internet age of the late s and early s was a unique free-for-all Wild West, the new age reflects more the era of the robber barons of the US in the late 19th century — the monopolies and trusts that came to dominate the industry through horizontal and vertical integration. Big Tech companies are so large they now have gobbled up swaths of the Internet and control the way in which most information and communications flow. Various large Big Tech sites have crashed in the past, usually for a short time. There has also been an increase in cyber incidents over the last few years, including cyberattacks that have targeted critical infrastructure, whether in Israel, the US or other places.

The question that should be asked increasingly by governments is how they can replicate or maintain communication and major Internet systems in case of an outage among major companies that are too big to fail. The world is entering an era of uncertainty, reflected not only in the pandemic, but also in great power competition. This is because the world order that emerged after the Cold War, which led to the global dominance of the United States, has now shifted to a league of authoritarian countries that are at odds with Washington and Western democracies.

Most of them also censor certain parts of the Internet or fear widespread citizen use of it as a whole. This includes Turkey, Iran, China, Russia and other states. Big Tech companies often must weigh the demands of authoritarian regimes to crack down on them, balancing them with their own budgets and business goals. This means, in some cases, succumbing to the authoritarians. They might also sometimes cater to the authoritarian request to remove groups linked to dissidents in places like Turkey. They must struggle with those questions. Large authoritarian regimes may realize that Big Tech is the soft underbelly of the Western democracies. Let enough people rely on just one or two tech giants for everything they do, and you create a Pearl Harbor-like vulnerability.

And how will it respond if it is not regulated and closely monitored by governments that have an interest in maintaining its security? While it is true that the corporations that run these platforms are private, Western governments have understood that when it comes to large corporate networks — whether phone companies, radio, rail or transportation — even if some aspects of the industry are private, there is a need to use these industries in times of peril.

For this very reason, there is an emergency broadcast system in the US. They should consider duplicating or archiving these systems, rather than relying on private corporations to do so.

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