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A mixture of fiberglass , hemp fiber, kenaf , and flax has been used since to make composite panels for automobiles. For example, the Lotus Eco Elise  and the Mercedes C-Class both contain hemp up to 20 kg in each car in the case of the latter. Hemp paper are paper varieties consisting exclusively or to a large extent from pulp obtained from fibers of industrial hemp. The products are mainly specialty papers such as cigarette paper ,  banknotes and technical filter papers.
However, production costs are about four times higher than for paper from wood ,  since the infrastructure for using hemp is underdeveloped. If the paper industry were to switch from wood to hemp for sourcing its cellulose fibers, the following benefits could be utilized:. However, hemp has had a hard time competing with paper from trees or recycled newsprint. Only the outer part of the stem consists mainly of fibers which are suitable for the production of paper. Numerous attempts have been made to develop machines that efficiently and inexpensively separate useful fibers from less useful fibers, but none have been completely successful. This has meant that paper from hemp is still expensive compared to paper from trees.
Hemp jewellery includes bracelets, necklaces, anklets, rings, watches, and other adornments. Some jewellery features beads made from crystals, glass , stone , wood and bones. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors. There are many different stitches used to create hemp jewellery, however, the half knot and full knot stitches are most common. Hemp rope was used in the age of sailing ships , though the rope had to be protected by tarring , since hemp rope has a propensity for breaking from rot , as the capillary effect of the rope-woven fibers tended to hold liquid at the interior, while seeming dry from the outside.
Hemp rope was phased out when manila rope , which does not require tarring, became widely available. Hemp shives are the core of the stem, hemp hurds are broken parts of the core. In the EU, they are used for animal bedding horses, for instance , or for horticultural mulch. Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation —the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.
Hemp crops are tall, have thick foliage, and can be planted densely, and thus can be grown as a smother crop to kill tough weeds. However, due to the plant's rapid and dense growth characteristics, some jurisdictions consider hemp a prohibited and noxious weed, much like Scotch Broom. The dense growth of hemp helps kill weeds, even thistle. Biodiesel can be made from the oils in hemp seeds and stalks; this product is sometimes called "hempoline". Filtered hemp oil can be used directly to power diesel engines. In , Rudolf Diesel invented the diesel engine, which he intended to power "by a variety of fuels, especially vegetable and seed oils, which earlier were used for oil lamps , i.
Production of vehicle fuel from hemp is very small. Commercial biodiesel and biogas is typically produced from cereals, coconuts, palm seeds, and cheaper raw materials like garbage, wastewater, dead plant and animal material, animal feces and kitchen waste. Separation of hurd and bast fiber is known as decortication. Traditionally, hemp stalks would be water- retted first before the fibers were beaten off the inner hurd by hand, a process known as scutching. As mechanical technology evolved, separating the fiber from the core was accomplished by crushing rollers and brush rollers, or by hammer-milling, wherein a mechanical hammer mechanism beats the hemp against a screen until hurd, smaller bast fibers, and dust fall through the screen.
After the Marijuana Tax Act was implemented in , the technology for separating the fibers from the core remained "frozen in time". Recently, new high-speed kinematic decortication has come about, capable of separating hemp into three streams; bast fiber, hurd, and green microfiber. Only in , did Ireland, parts of the Commonwealth and other countries begin to legally grow industrial hemp again.
Iterations of the s decorticator have been met with limited success, along with steam explosion and chemical processing known as thermomechanical pulping. Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. Millennia of selective breeding have resulted in varieties that display a wide range of traits; e. Hemp grown for fiber is planted closely, resulting in tall, slender plants with long fibers. The use of industrial hemp plant and its cultivation was commonplace until the s when it was associated with its genetic sibling a. Influential groups misconstrued hemp as a dangerous "drug",  even though hemp is not a recreational drug and has the potential to be a sustainable and profitable crop for many farmers due to hemp's medical, structural and dietary uses.
In the United States, the public's perception of hemp as marijuana has blocked hemp from becoming a useful crop and product,"  in spite of its vital importance prior to World War II. This early cropping reduces the seed yield but improves the fiber yield and quality. Greater seeding depths result in increased weed competition. Nitrogen should not be placed with the seed, but phosphate may be tolerated.
Organic fertilizers such as manure are one of the best methods of weed control. In contrast to cannabis for medical use, varieties grown for fiber and seed have less than 0. Cannabis sativa L. Typically, hemp contains below 0. Smallholder plots are usually harvested by hand. The plants are cut at 2 to 3 cm above the soil and left on the ground to dry. Mechanical harvesting is now common, using specially adapted cutter-binders or simpler cutters. The cut hemp is laid in swathes to dry for up to four days. This was traditionally followed by retting , either water retting the bundled hemp floats in water or dew retting the hemp remains on the ground and is affected by the moisture in dew and by molds and bacterial action.
Harvesting industrial hemp Cannabis sativa - This is a separate harvest for a different form of processing: The upper part of the plant with the leaves will be collected for cold pressing, while the lower part remains for producing fiber and initially it is left on the field. Several arthropods can cause damage or injury to hemp plants, but the most serious species are associated with the Insecta class. The most problematic for outdoor crops are the voracious stem-boring caterpillars, which include the European corn borer , Ostrinia nubilalis, and the Eurasian hemp borer, Grapholita delineana.
Root feeders can be difficult to detect and control because of their below surface habitat. A number of beetle grubs and chafers are known to cause damage to hemp roots, including the flea beetle and Japanese beetle , Popillia Japonica. Cultural and physical controls should be employed in conjunction with biological pest controls , chemical applications should only be used as a last resort.
Hemp plants can be vulnerable to various pathogens , including bacteria , fungi , nematodes , viruses and other miscellaneous pathogens. Such diseases often lead to reduced fiber quality, stunted growth, and death of the plant. These diseases rarely affect the yield of a hemp field, so hemp production is not traditionally dependent on the use of pesticides.
Hemp is considered by a study in Environmental Economics to be environmentally friendly due to a decrease of land use and other environmental impacts, indicating a possible decrease of ecological footprint in a US context compared to typical benchmarks. France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. Smaller production occurs in the rest of Europe , Chile , and North Korea.
The United Kingdom and Germany resumed commercial production in the s. British production is mostly used as bedding for horses ; other uses are under development. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics ; many traditional growing countries continue to produce textile -grade fibre. Air-dried stem yields in Ontario have from and onward ranged from 2. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8. Northern Ontario crops averaged 6. Statistic for the European Union for to say that the average yield of hemp straw has varied between 6. Around one tonne of bast fiber and 2—3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3—4 tonnes of good-quality, dry-retted straw.
In the Australian states of Tasmania , Victoria , Queensland , Western Australia , New South Wales , and most recently, South Australia , the state governments have issued licences to grow hemp for industrial use. The first to initiate modern research into the potential of cannabis was the state of Tasmania, which pioneered the licensing of hemp during the early s. The state of Victoria was an early adopter in , and has reissued the regulation in Queensland has allowed industrial production under licence since ,  where the issuance is controlled under the Drugs Misuse Act Commercial production including cultivation of industrial hemp has been permitted in Canada since under licenses and authorization issued by Health Canada.
In the early s, industrial hemp agriculture in North America began with the Hemp Awareness Committee at the University of Manitoba. The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government. Their efforts led to the legalization of industrial hemp hemp with only minute amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol in Canada and the first harvest in In , the cultivated area for hemp in the Prairie provinces include Saskatchewan with more than 56, acres 23, ha , Alberta with 45, acres 18, ha , and Manitoba with 30, acres 12, ha.
France is Europe's biggest producer and the world's second largest producer with 8, hectares 20, acres cultivated. From the s to the s, the Soviet Union was the world's largest producer of hemp 3, square kilometres 1, sq mi in The main production areas were in Ukraine ,  the Kursk and Orel regions of Russia , and near the Polish border. Since its inception in , the Hemp Breeding Department at the Institute of Bast Crops in Hlukhiv Glukhov , Ukraine, has been one of the world's largest centers for developing new hemp varieties, focusing on improving fiber quality, per-hectare yields, and low THC content. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the commercial cultivation of hemp declined sharply. However, at least an estimated 2.
When grown for nondrug purposes, hemp is referred to as industrial hemp, and a common product is fibre for use in a wide variety of products, as well as the seed for nutritional aspects and the oil. Feral hemp or ditch weed is usually a naturalized fibre or oilseed strain of Cannabis that has escaped from cultivation and is self-seeding. In October , hemp became legal to grow in 46 U. As of , 47 states have enacted legislation to make hemp legal to grow at the state level, with several states implementing medical provisions regarding the growing of plants specifically for non-psychoactive CBD. The Farm Bill , which incorporated the Hemp Farming Act of , removed hemp as a Schedule I drug and instead made it an agricultural commodity. This legalized hemp at the federal level, which made it easier for hemp farmers to get production licenses, acquire loans, and receive federal crop insurance.
The process to legalize hemp cultivation began in , when Oregon began approving licenses for industrial hemp. Hemp production in Kentucky , formerly the United States' leading producer, resumed in Despite this progress, hemp businesses in the US have had difficulties expanding as they have faced challenges in traditional marketing and sales approaches. According to a case study done by Forbes , hemp businesses and startups have had difficulty marketing and selling non-psychoactive hemp products, as some online advertising platforms and financial institutions do not distinguish between hemp and marijuana.
Gathered hemp fiber was used to make cloth long before agriculture, nine to fifty thousand years ago. Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber summarizes the historical evidence that Cannabis sativa , "grew and was known in the Neolithic period all across the northern latitudes, from Europe Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Romania, Ukraine to East Asia Tibet and China ," but, "textile use of Cannabis sativa does not surface for certain in the West until relatively late, namely the Iron Age. The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause.
Jews living in Palestine in the 2nd century were familiar with the cultivation of hemp, as witnessed by a reference to it in the Mishna Kil'ayim as a variety of plant, along with Arum , that sometimes takes as many as three years to grow from a seedling. In late medieval Germany and Italy , hemp was employed in cooked dishes, as filling in pies and tortes , or boiled in a soup. The use of hemp as a cloth was centered largely in the countryside, with higher quality textiles being available in the towns. The Spaniards brought hemp to the Americas and cultivated it in Chile starting about As early as , the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow "both English and Indian" hemp on their plantations.
George Washington pushed for the growth of hemp as it was a cash crop commonly used to make rope and fabric. In May he noted in his diary about the sowing of seeds each day until mid-April. Then he recounts the harvest in October which he grew 27 bushels that year. It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington's diary, which reads "Began to seperate [ sic ] the Male from the Female hemp at Do. However, the editorial remark accompanying the diary states that "This may arise from their [the male] being coarser, and the stalks larger"  In subsequent days, he describes soaking the hemp  to make the fibers usable and harvesting the seeds,  suggesting that he was growing hemp for industrial purposes, not recreational.
George Washington also imported the Indian hemp plant from Asia, which was used for fiber and, by some growers, for intoxicating resin production. In a letter to William Pearce who managed the plants for him, Washington says, "What was done with the Indian Hemp plant from last summer? It ought, all of it, to be sown again; that not only a stock of seed sufficient for my own purposes might have been raised, but to have disseminated seed to others; as it is more valuable than common hemp.
Historically, hemp production had made up a significant portion of antebellum Kentucky's economy. Before the American Civil War , many slaves worked on plantations producing hemp. In , the Marihuana Tax Act of was passed in the United States, levying a tax on anyone who dealt commercially in cannabis, hemp, or marijuana. The passing of the Act to destroy the U. One claim is that Hearst believed [ dubious — discuss ] that his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator that he feared would allow hemp to become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspaper. Further, decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production.
Another claim is that Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at that time, had invested heavily in DuPont 's new synthetic fiber, nylon , and believed [ dubious — discuss ] that the replacement of the traditional resource, hemp, was integral to the new product's success. During the war, Japan cut off those supply lines. In the United States, Executive Order identified hemp as a strategic national product that should be stockpiled.
The Farm Bill changed federal policy regarding hemp, including the removal of hemp from the Controlled Substances Act and the consideration of hemp as an agricultural product. The bill legalized hemp under certain restrictions and defined hemp as the plant species Cannabis sativa L. Previously, the Farm Bill provided a definition for hemp and allowed for state departments of agriculture or universities to grow and produce hemp as part of research or pilot programs.
The U. Department of Agriculture USDA oversees hemp cultivation as the responsible federal regulatory agency. The USDA was set to issue a final rule after the crop season. The rule reemphasizes an earlier USDA ruling that interstate transportation is legal, even if the shipment travels through a state that does allow the growing of hemp. USDA published a final rule on January 19, , that provides regulations for the production of hemp in the United States and is effective on March 22, The final rule builds on the interim final rule published October 31, , that established the U.
Domestic Hemp Production Program. The final rule incorporates modifications based on public comments and lessons learned during the growing season. Joe "Daddy Burt" Burton, a recognized top Kentucky hemp farmer with harvested hemp, United States "Marihuana" production permit. In the United States, hemp cultivation is legally prohibited , but during World War II farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for cordage, to replace Manila hemp previously obtained from Japanese -controlled areas. Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Commercial production of hemp in the West took off in the eighteenth century, but was grown in the sixteenth century in eastern England. In the early s, world production of hemp fiber ranged from to metric tonnes, Russia was the biggest producer.
In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to increasingly popular artificial fibers. The world production of hemp fiber fell from over , metric tons to about 75, metric tons in the early s and has after that been stable at that level. In Japan , hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. In , marijuana was restricted as a narcotic drug. The ban on marijuana imposed by the United States authorities was alien to Japanese culture, as the drug had never been widely used in Japan before. Though these laws against marijuana are some of the world's strictest, allowing five years imprisonment for possession of the drug, they exempt hemp growers, whose crop is used to make robes for Buddhist monks and loincloths for Sumo wrestlers.
Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question. The cultivation of hemp in Portuguese lands began around the fourteenth century. Portugal also utilized its colonies to support its hemp supply, including in certain parts of Brazil. In order to recover the ailing Portuguese naval fleet after the Restoration of Independence in , King John IV put a renewed emphasis on the growing of hemp. He ordered the creation of the Royal Linen and Hemp Factory in the town of Torre de Moncorvo to increase production and support the effort.
In , the cultivation of hemp became illegal, and the production was substantially reduced. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about industrial uses of Cannabis. For the genus of plants, see Cannabis. For therapeutic preparations of the plant, see Medical cannabis. For the psychoactive preparation, see Cannabis drug. LibriVox volunteers record chapters of books in the public domain, and then we release the audio files back onto the net. We are a totally volunteer, open source, free content, public domain project. LibriVox volunteers narrate, proof listen, and upload chapters of books and other textual works in the public domain.
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